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10. Taruven by Kaleissin

Texts | Grammar | Lexicon
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štha kiaþven saìes žānonn. aò dusitael uleìnerram kiið.

leuleìne: "vasašša, ūven sahamitann, vïtsuan ōvunanmitann. ïus sahel khetha, sükraỳið."

i sašša ryaþ aò leriharra. "¿jivriš ōvunanmitann sütsuan? ¿jivriš sahel ïus khethaskīntše, sükraỳið? keìgah ūel uleìneëlann hvennvuhti süþannið. ū xelann ryaþ su sā rynnšeŋŋ ūið."

aò sitael uleìne: "uleìne hvennvuhti vïþannið."

kiaþel uleìne: "ësašša ūaþ."

aò sitael uleìne: "ša kraỳ su uleìnegeár. ¿ēisaþ ryšša?"

aò kiaþel uleìne: "sā ryšša." aò lekirja sitajïmalaþ dubonn. lekirja xō aò mal khabh xal fales.

sitael uuleìnelann uleìne: "¿jivriš yrimar ūið?"
  Smooth English

The deer's story

A beautiful woman crosses a river with the help of a bridge. The male deer needs to speak with her.

It says: "Listen, you beauty, like a dancer. Your eyes are like a pair of small moons. I choose you, my lifemate!"

She hears this and laughs. "My eyes are like a pair of small moons? I am to choose you, as my lifemate? Indeed, you cannot tell me my three-word name. If you can do this, then I will tell."

The deer says: "I say your three-word name."

She says: "I didn't hear you."

The deer says: "If you and I are lifeamates, then I will tell. What do you answer?"

The woman says: "I answer." She cuts the deer's body up with a knife. She cuts qiuckly, and the body falls into the water.

The deer, which can speak, says: "Was that fun for you?"




  • Axis words:

    phrase1 AXIS phrase2

    'a' and complemented verb+subject are axis-words, meaning you can switch what's on the left with what's on the right with no change in meaning. Furthermore, if the phrases on the left and right have suffixes in common, they can move to the axis-word.

  • Copula/to be:

    NA. "Noun1 Noun1" might mean that Noun1 is a Noun2 or that

    Noun2 is a Noun1 or Noun2 is in apposition.

  • Free phrase order:

    Except when axis words interfere.

  • Inalienable possession:

    Bodyparts, relatives, first names and a few other nouns are inalienably possessed. The possessor can go on the noun as a prefixed pronoun, these do not show number, only person. A noun can inalienably possess another noun with the particle |jï|: Jehanjïkir, the hand of Jehan.

  • Same subject:

    Instead of repeating a subject pronoun if it is the same sentence after sentence, the repeated subject can be prefixed as |le-| on the verb.

  • vc, complemented verbs:

    A subset of verbs takes a specially marked subject (-el), and either an object marked for benefactive or another statement, an example in the text is |ār| 'to think'. There isn't a standalone complement-word in Taruven, instead there's this phenomena.

  • vc special, special complemented verbs:

    These need a case-by-case explanation. |su| takes a word with |-el| or sentence as its subject/cause, and a word with |-ið| or sentence as its effect. Usually the cause comes first.

  • vm, movement verbs:

    A large set of verbs involving movement (example in text: khabh xal). If they have objects these are locations, hence marked with the locative.



-an = dual number
aò = and then
-aþ = patient, object, accusative
dubh (dub) = knife (n)
du- = male
ēisaþ = question particle, wants to know the object/patient of the verb
-el = subject of complemented verb
ë- = negation marker
-es = locative (location)
fal = water (n)
-geár = certainly
hvenn = the numeral 3
i = 3s
-ið = recipient, benefactive, dative
ï- = focus, emphasis
jï = inalienably possessed, XjïY = X owns/has Y
jivriš = question particle for yes/no questions
keìgah = indeed
khabh xal = fall into (vm)
khetha = choose (vc)
kiaþ = woman (n)
ki- = female
kiið -> ki- + i + -ið
kirja = cut completely, cut off, cut open (v)
kraỳ = lifemate (n)
-lann = capable, able
le- = same subject as previous clause
llaì = story (n)
mal = body (n)
mitann = style
ō = moon (n)
-onn = instrumental, with (the help of) instrument
riharra = laugh (v)
rimar = give joy (v)
-rram = must, need (mood)
-ru = locative (locatee)
rynn = tell (v)
ryšša = answer (v)
ry = this, that (demonstrative)
sā = 1s
saha = dance (n, v)
sahel = 1s subject of complemented verb, high register
saì = river (n)
sašša = hear, listen (v)
-šeŋŋ = want, willing (mood)
sita = deer (n)
-skīntše = gedankenexperiment, irrealis (mood)
štha = cross (vc)
sü- = 1st person inalienably possessed
su = if (vc special)
-ti = partitive
tsu = eye
ū = 2s
uleìne = sing, speak, tell (vc)
u- = relative marker
-ur = over (location)
us = 2s recipient/benefactive, high register
va- = imperative
-ven = pretty (adj.)
vï- = 2nd person inalienably possessed
vuh = word (n)
-vun = small (adj.)
xe = do, pro-verb (v)
xō = quick, fast, quickly
y- = passive
žān = bridge (n)
þann = name (n)

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