The LCC3 Relay

Welcome to the LCC Relay! Use the navigation ring below to choose a destination:

Introduction | Rules | Participants | Summary | FAQ
Previous LCC Relays | All Previous Relays

10. Labarion by Lars Finsen

Texts | Grammar | Glossary | Abbreviations
Previous (Jim Henry, gjâ-zym-byn) | Next (Lila Sadkin, Tenata)


Saltat trei tonnus

Diu oinu seðtu onco mori in lege bristiio. Rettu trei tonnon io octu bristi. Indiretous bue, lubissur. Exlenciur tonnon treiio ressu andebrisaunu. Teðmisiu eio brisaunon do aivi. Mendu troget in son lagon pellon etic saltat trei tonnus.
  Smooth English

Moving through the waves

One day I sat in front of the see where it was breaking. I ran through a wave breaking violently. It was irresistible, I loved it. I dream of a wave that I can run through as it breaks strongly. I will feel its breaking forever. I wish to return to that remote place and move through the waves.



Labarion is a reconstruction of the Gaulish language as spoken in late pre-Roman times. It has an online forum,, where a file section can be accessed, containing grammar and vocabulary. It's not my creation, mainly the work of the group owner Alounis, though I have contributed.

I don't follow the standard Labarion orthography here. Rather I am using a latinised spelling as it appeared in historic times, except that I am using a u for the vocalic v.

It is an Indo-European language of the Celtic family and strongly case-marked with a complicated verbal system. Probably it yielded to Latin so swiftly on the continent because Latin was easier to learn.

In the glossary, the nouns and verbs are marked with class denominations. The ones represented in the text are mi, masculine i-stems, mo, masculine o-stems, mu, masculine u-stems, no, neuter o-stems, BI, strong verbs of the 1st conjugation, BIV, strong verbs of the 4th conjugation, AII, weak verbs of the 2nd conjugation. Their morphologies are tabulated below. Deponent verbs are a particular form used when the action originates from the subject and affects only the subject. It will suffice to note here that the two forms used in the text are made simply by appending an r at the end of the word.

The word order is rather free, but generally SOV. Subject pronouns are incorporated into the verbs so that sentences often start with a verb. Attributes may precede or follow their heads. Adjectives must agree with their nouns in case, gender and number. Verbs have no infinitive, and verbs are listed in their 3rd person singular present form. This form also is used in compounds after an auxiliary, no matter the tense or mood of the auxiliary. The relative pronoun io is often appended to the verb if the clause is simple. Any noun or adjective may be used as an adverb by applying the instrumental case.

Nominal morphology:
mo: sg pl mi: sg pl  mu: sg  pl
nom os ii     i  ies     us  oves
acc on us     in is      un  us
dat u  obo    e  ibo     ou  oubo
gen i  on     es ion     ous uion
loc e  obi    i  ibi     u   oubi
abl u  obi    i  ibi     u   oubi
ins u  obi    i  ibi     u   oubi
voc e  us     i  ies     u   oves

no is identical to mo except that the, the and the is -on.

Verbal morphology:
AII: pres pret    fut
1s   iu   issu    isiu
2s   ii   isses   isies
3s   it   is      isiet
1p   imos issames isiomos
2p   ite  issate  isiete
3p   int  issant  isiont

BI:  pres pret  p.subj
1s   u    tu    su
2s   es   tes   ses
3s   et   ti    set
1p   omos tomes somos
2p   ete  tete  sete
3p   ont  ton   sont

A voiced stop ending a root will turn to a fricative before the preterite ending, here ð. Dental stops preceding the subjunctive ending are assimilated to the s.

BIV: pres
1s   ami
2s   ai
3s   at
1p   amos
2p   ate
3p   ant

To be: pres  pret   fut      p.subj
1s     emmi  buan   bisiu    buju
2s     ei    buas   bisies   bues
3s     essi  bue    bisiet   buet
1p     emmos buamos bisiomos buomos
2p     esue  buate  bisiete  buete
3p     senti buant  bisiont  buont



aivi (adv) ever, always
andebrisaunon (no) great breaking
brisaunon (no) breaking
briset (BI) break
dius (mu) day
do (prep + abl) to, for
eio (pron) its, his, her
essi (irreg) be - conjugation tabulated above
etic (conj) and
exlencit (AII) dream
in (prep + abl) in, at
in (prep + acc) into, to
indiretous (adj) irresistible
io (pron) relative pronoun
legos (mo) place
lubit (AII) enjoy, love
mendet (BI) wish, want
mori (mi) sea, ocean
octu (adv) violently
oinos (num) 1
onco (prep + abl) beside, next to
pellos (adj) remote, far
retet (BI) run
saltat (BIV) move
sedet (BI) sit
son (pron) this, that
teðmit (AII) feel
tonnos (mo) wave
trei (prep + acc) through
treiio (prep + acc) through which
troget (BI) go back, return



1p      1st person plural
1s      1st person singular
2p      2nd person plural
2s      2nd person singular
3p      3rd person plural
3s      3rd person singular
abl     ablative
acc     accusative
adj     adjective
adv     adverb
AII     weak verb of the 2nd conjugation
BI      strong verb of the 1st conjugation
BIV     strong verb of the 4th conjugation
conj    conjunction
dat     dative
fut     future
gen     genitive
ins     instrumental
loc     locative
nom     nominative
num     numeral
prep    preposition
pres    present
pret    preterite
pron    pronoun
p.subj  present subjunctive
voc     vocative

Previous (Jim Henry, gjâ-zym-byn) | Next (Lila Sadkin, Tenata)

This page was last modified on Friday, August 3, 2018.
This website was last modified on .
This page can be viewed normally, as a milk or dark chocolate bar, in sleek black and white, or in many other ways!
All languages, fonts, pictures, and other materials copyright © 2003- David J. Peterson.

free counters