The Swadesh List

The idea having been covertly suggested to me by the Wikipedia, I thought it'd be a neat idea to add a page wherein I filled out the Swadesh list for all my spoken languages (yes, this excludes X and KNSL. For now). When it's finished (and even before), this page'll provide a good sample of each of my languages, as well as a simple way to compare them. In order to read the chart properly, you'll have to know the romanization system of each language (and, since the IPA is impractical, I do have to use a different romanization system for pretty much any language). In order to do that, go to the phonology section for each language, wherein the romanization for the language you've chosen will be detailed.

The first thing you probably noticed is that the tables aren't completely filled in. Well, it takes awhile. I'll get there. I also haven't decided exactly what to do about words that correspond to affixes in, for example, Zhyler and Epiq, or for multiple list entries that correspond to a single word in a given language, or vice versa. Finally, you might notice (especially if you've visited this page before) that the "table" is now skinnier, and has been divided in two. I did this for two reasons: (1) the table had swelled to an unacceptable girth; and (2) by adding Sidaan, the table could be split evenly in two. Now we've got enough to play five-on-five. (Sathir's definitely the point guard of the first team. Wonder who plays center...)

To jump between the two tables, use the convenient links below!


Table 1: Zhyler, Kamakawi, Kelenala, Sathir and Njaama

# English Zhyler Kamakawi Kelenala Sathir Njaama
1 I ma ei ma ame wa
2 you (sg.) li ia ya kis yaa
3 he lea eni hono sa
4 we maya uei, etc. ima amí wanyaalá
5 y'all liye uia iya kis yaalá
6 they upea, etc. yeni honú salá
7 this le iko ki phora sáá
8 that (prox.) za ipe he kwira héé
9 here lese ko kiwi hono sázu
10 there (prox.) zase pe heye thono hézu
11 who gaxavet ai...i emi ai esa ozemi kày (sá)
12 what oya ai...i uku ai e phozun kày (sá)
13 where (pron.) gaðavet ai...i ala ai ele lozuna kày su
14 when volanaz ai...poiu fea ai elu khozenga kày ómu
15 how oyase ai...ti kane ai say ozola kày !olíí
16 not röz oku o ur o
17 all las uila te šora éélé en
18 many čey u wo twogilan eey
19 some det umi ye yu aza títí en
20 few üm poi, umi ye yu phas ínu
21 other dor ikaka milu heri pú¢a en
22 one al ape a aza háme
23 two ten ka mi pentha táme
24 three vay no la kala súme
25 four pes to pa tumma kéme
26 five ka moko se elna vóme
27 big göč kavi weya rizo ngáándyá
28 long ÿrÿš elu solano yari p'éndé
29 wide öm olu epuso šime aané
30 thick zümüp potu polo šaži wááze
31 heavy tÿz fila umesu pabe mu!oo
32 small milip uli noni koþes títí
33 short ðür fome toki kwepi, thuves úku, k'opi
34 narrow tÿk nepi opemi nginu éér
35 thin bul tuki isu saza siláw
36 woman žiykÿ eine maya yana eelín
37 man sexa hopoko teka thogo sángi
38 person zixÿ emi sa emi úúngá
39 child šÿnkÿ mali kesi minga iizi
40 wife [[]] eine haleya [[]] [[]]
41 husband [[]] hopoko haleya [[]] [[]]
42 mother ÿmkÿ mala may ngamma kyémí
43 father [[]] fala pay [[]] [[]]
44 animal gaven, etc. kanaka ko tunis úúngi
45 fish nawmos nawa nawa pane laanya
46 bird ivžel fuila yo kwaza k'óó!á
47 dog čelven palaki palani twaga kolí
48 louse idmel opu noniyu pwestu ¢u¢u
49 snake palkÿz palakutu yaysi hazo ííze
50 worm örmel paopu yaysiyu ngaba k'oozo
51 tree vešpöl kapolo pawe iva !ááza
52 forest vešþe falele waysala ngoola makíné
53 stick vešya inu kisiwa enga pó¢u
54 fruit išpen oli poma naatwa ngyálo
55 seed bowgö fa lawko sebi ndátya
56 leaf ökyo noe saku madun ek'áá
57 root yodban lo payunu iþir seembi
58 bark jepwi ta'a pawakawi ammal mbó!u
59 flower kayler teli pelini oli mazú
60 grass sešler fale salasi woras páysi
61 rope ruklür fauma sulake yungi hempú
62 skin enedga epelu wakawi koma ¢ízí
63 meat vemben nukoa tayko espho áángor
64 blood rujwÿ teve emola mewa voole
65 bone sütkü temi wesu safi opo
66 fat wimwi eta omikaw phona k'wiime
67 egg ölgö ino womo wankhu oop'í
68 horn döjgö peva topokisiwa ponthu met'e
69 tail urgü keli puli yoros uumén
70 feather mokyo muve somayo thaaši ndánaa
71 hair denwi neki soma uuri kyóla
72 head kečya ono topo thuxo áá¢á
73 ear ðilgÿ hea lewisu asta hát'i
74 eye madga mata masa os p'ote
75 nose nülgü nanu nay ngumi ngánda
76 mouth časka mowonu paw khoda ‡ápi
77 tooth ðalga ke tu phodo ndondo
78 tongue nöngö na nala pyora nélu
79 fingernail enedga neupo aka kyupi ¢ópó
80 foot naška e'i mepawko sontu nde!e
81 leg ipkÿ tama mepa šenar ngyóózu
82 knee bolgö futa uyeka uko óót'u
83 hand ökkö kopu hoko havon aatu
84 wing ivgÿ leta yokale mazi p'óp'u
85 stomach göjgö noni pawla koþon oo‡áá
86 intestines azwÿ ae yupawla westu ngyéléw
87 neck nežga hole aka pwar hilóy
88 back ungÿ neu taka ozu p'étya
89 breast peska ave husuli šempu meme
90 heart eğa hu'u iwa khasra numbu
91 liver žÿngÿ ilu pawlaywa hubo nga¢á
92 drink memel nivu numanaw kyola ulú
93 eat usal hava maka kuna ‡ótu
94 bite ðalan ni'u tu modo tyop'ú
95 suck [[]] latu hiyono [[]] [[]]
96 spit [[]] puliu...kau pawlisa [[]] [[]]
97 vomit [[]] ineumeme nayulane [[]] [[]]
98 blow [[]] huva pawiso [[]] [[]]
99 breathe saval hepa hi leska azáá
100 laugh (v.) bazal ha'a nola roga é'é
101 see matal mata ay yoža kaané
102 hear sisol hea weyu asta k'ómba
103 know čusal fe'a kisa šesta ééyt'a
104 think banal omo hima anentha uumyá
105 smell argal nanu eso khuure nóp'a
106 fear ÿval hetu musu twayes k'ék'ip'a
107 sleep ernel olo eyu kworos uluungi
108 live rujal hala'i omeno rora néya
109 die sayal nemile simo numumme ndéwsa
110 kill sayasal nemilele pawasu nerumme katyóvó
111 fight werel pote heku pwiža t'okáá
112 hunt darkal notu alapawasu khantho há'e
113 hit taval pato taylatapu oðwa tyata
114 cut ejel tiva oko ezin aazu
115 split jenel kawa osula perentha aazu
116 stab sejel titiva okuwa ezimmu á!í
117 scratch ubal neupopo awkuwama khota línlín
118 dig tumal opa upalelusa šavi po¢á
119 swim nawal mawa nipa powe k'elkí
120 fly (v.) golan fuila wela mazi k'óópu
121 walk müsal olomo (mepawkuw)ala sontu ngúmbe
122 come zinel ale...ko hele tofa úmbe...sázu
123 lie šerel laumi iko ngwel ti‡ekú
124 sit ÿsal kupi ponu pwaro ‡ekú
125 stand jolan tiku yasa twizu k'ánta
126 turn [[]] ume oyuno [[]] [[]]
127 fall [[]] kawau silu [[]] [[]]
128 give [[]] nevi li [[]] [[]]
129 hold [[]] liki saya [[]] [[]]
130 squeeze [[]] uma emili [[]] [[]]
131 rub [[]] fane wama [[]] [[]]
132 wash [[]] oeoe limiya [[]] [[]]
133 wipe [[]] oe lilimiya [[]] [[]]
134 pull [[]] nulu lusa [[]] [[]]
135 push [[]] lana kesa [[]] [[]]
136 throw [[]] lalau lasa [[]] [[]]
137 tie [[]] iola sula [[]] [[]]
138 sew [[]] lolota saykesula [[]] [[]]
139 count [[]] fatu manuli [[]] [[]]
140 say nönel hekala ina thaba wáázé
141 sing vonal noala ayala thova hep'í
142 play [[]] noalele awana [[]] [[]]
143 float [[]] upi sosomayo [[]] [[]]
144 flow [[]] oea ala [[]] [[]]
145 freeze [[]] fiviti naysami [[]] [[]]
146 swell tivel o'emu weweya heži málta
147 sun šeya eili siya šeni hézí
148 moon žilyÿ uomo kama tweya k'uumu
149 star ðezya inivie hayseli išeni íítya
150 water išwi lelea way šawa aa
151 rain yeswi lave lisa lasta saa‡ur
152 river zekler ha sena mefa tína
153 lake zekya iolu oki weeso k'ewli
154 sea naredðe leveya ipono čospi vo¢e
155 salt jabwÿ teka tisi pwoku mbekáy
156 stone čuryu leya nima one yaana
157 sand jazwÿ ta ta neze hát'e
158 dust bavwÿ fava upaleyuka kwodas ‡átya
159 earth korobyo pata upale rumpho wendyér
160 cloud köyyo kawi wimi ažan t'áwi
161 fog ÿrlir heva kolu ožoo pát'áwá
162 sky enedwi ele imeya twaya úla
163 wind rašwÿ hevaka iso haþa hóóvú
164 snow kösötyo ketetió sawli mazas mázaza
165 ice gÿraðya kulatiá isami khungu k'úngu
166 smoke korwÿ uevolu yosa šamma ndeewe
167 fire jimwi kava asi yežin ty'óózu
168 ashes šivwi hopu asiyuka hafil mi‡é
169 burn öžel kakava asiyoko yežinkwo íty'óózu
170 road eylerje kane ala axa !olíí
171 mountain pekya pake paka šoza nómba
172 red yelda tiki sami heži oole
173 green ren falele tasi kwesta mbánte
174 yellow gönlö eilili laysa thopo k'ayláá
175 white itwin a'i ayla twayes kásya
176 black jel lake aw rooto tozu
177 night leyetþe uomoko mulaya paþa énle
178 day šeyaja ki sayana šoonu lóómá
179 year ulür ulili lay ravin yí!é
180 warm [[]] hile ukesi [[]] [[]]
181 cold [[]] fiti sisi [[]] [[]]
182 full [[]] iwe osuna [[]] [[]]
183 new [[]] lapa yuli [[]] [[]]
184 old [[]] fupo oweno [[]] [[]]
185 good [[]] eyana seya [[]] [[]]
186 bad [[]] noku usu [[]] [[]]
187 rotten [[]] uke osana [[]] [[]]
188 dirty [[]] meme tolasi [[]] [[]]
189 straight [[]] fela luka [[]] [[]]
190 round [[]] luku losi [[]] [[]]
191 sharp [[]] tiva isayka [[]] [[]]
192 dull [[]] oka pu [[]] [[]]
193 smooth [[]] fape naysu [[]] [[]]
194 wet [[]] lilie alu [[]] [[]]
195 dry [[]] ata sapa [[]] [[]]
196 correct [[]] lavaka nuya [[]] [[]]
197 near [[]] kana loye [[]] [[]]
198 far [[]] na'u hinowo [[]] [[]]
199 right [[]] onou anaku [[]] [[]]
200 left [[]] ukia elesu [[]] [[]]
201 at -k ala si -id-/-it- li/lí
202 in -z ae si ma li
203 with -n oi wa kwo li
204 and -nam/-nem oi wa me li
205 if [[]] -fi elu [[]] [[]]
206 because [[]] -le su [[]] [[]]
207 name ženðe tomi ana unga t'ópa

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Table 2: Epiq, Gweydr, Sheli, Tan Tyls and Sidaan

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# English Epiq Gweydr Sheli Tan Tyls Sidaan
1 I -(a)m(a) máy ko4 -n tox
2 you (sg.) -(a)k(a) líy ši4 -k mék
3 he -(a)n(a) káy tèn2 -s číŋ
4 we -(a)mü wén kon3 -ni toğa
5 y'all -(a)ki líyks šin3 -ki méga
6 they -(a)ni jéy tèn3 -si lor
7 this tun lé- ken3 qi-
8 that (prox.) pân sá- ef2ken3 qi-...xlar
9 here antun lebeš zun3 lúwó číl
10 there (prox.) ampân zbeš ez2zun3 láwó xlar
11 who inči fespeþ màng2 sáy lindor
12 what ini fet kèng2 láy l-
13 where (pron.) impi fezbeš jìng2 láylãnwô lundar
14 when âpi, âki fezdek sìng2 kôn, úkũn lax, laxlar
15 how insâs fetrem bèng2 láyš sini
16 not lolu örs os3 ek
17 all -nas 'ändr son2 -áp éya
18 many -kis čestr žun2 -ó' émbé
19 some -lüs det phit1 -ít qilte
20 few -lüs 'ûm phit1 -ít qilte
21 other -xeta ültö xis2 -qé xet
22 one qolyâ 'ál dow6 áp tol
23 two âkwâ ténd kan2 sîm ken
24 three ponyâ fáy čhí6 óá
25 four qalmâ päs may6 píš slax
26 five fanwâ káğá los1 háá šém
27 big -suloqo gwór žun2 -óq taŋ
28 long -suloqo riš ef3 láhmãs ṅağesta
29 wide -tuši hôm thup3 nyúíl łéñésta
30 thick -tuši sümb suf3 túl romusta
31 heavy -âxon þlatr čún5 áplôm silofkasta
32 small -čišika čûčû nis2 -ûn šíp
33 short -čišika þûr kip1 púópí hendesta
34 narrow -fisa nlusl ğis2 walal poyesta
35 thin -fisa búl it1 say čísčísta
36 woman qami šílínâ lés6 yalaxas histron
37 man nâmpu bózéná mòñ2 nãbamãsî esklet
38 person aqos síğúná jok1 tâwn indor
39 child piski kórúná tèng2 'áyké kaduh
40 wife [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
41 husband [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
42 mother kâši þâlínâ kèn2 úyn žŋaġu
43 father [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
44 animal fušâ pálínú xaz3 xlašw ñékka
45 fish makwa mos ğwo6 pasakãm ṅoqsa
46 bird âstâ šél 5 áytí místas
47 dog qalpi ĥórs kós6 tlayk foyu
48 louse qopa 'âmpû il1 kóxp éččé
49 snake xâsa bárívú jil1 qhás ñítta
50 worm moči nômûnû jun2 íwpuš ŋoltu
51 tree âsqo ent dàm3 óátíl end
52 forest kałpax ĥeš gwas6 ísúâm lemba
53 stick kânÿ 'esl 5 nháúq hago
54 fruit ista, nopu ot pham1 'ásép ołín
55 seed penu derk 5 'alakpap silunax
56 leaf pâné wuš ğìng2 áíšas ruže
57 root puló jímró fun2 qáyóó čívo
58 bark čâqâ fór nik1 lanãpš ṅolf
59 flower âši keftä phil3 wayãnq ŋułé
60 grass tâssa respiti wen6 óhtãm fluna
61 rope qëlâ pyirtiği tim1 íhix ítu
62 skin fašü end làng2 úškuth xluwe
63 meat tunkâ dlümb zib3 xaqašax fañés
64 blood esu rúč šul1 mãnãxwãy luğo
65 bone qaski dôw thon2 haq ume
66 fat untuq gróp xif1 yahalš ipsim
67 egg nwâlu hôl pay6 laqahãm kendeh
68 horn kisku bwiks pàm1 wóqap xegaza
69 tail utuk 'úr dog1 kasal raṅġi
70 feather manaþ moxtóws tus3 laxál ñélo
71 hair âslâ tâžâ šuv3 šyaqw łíjé
72 head čixo wuxt then2 yanãt tawo
73 ear upu yúlp as1 qlay hogu
74 eye kumpa fest phot1 yólân éba
75 nose ampwa bént 6 mbaw ščémbo
76 mouth mimpa bos2 tânġó xoṅ
77 tooth tana kázúr čif3 pasíí qendeh
78 tongue nipa čort čhul1 wayašqó ofux
79 fingernail lasmaq jafta max1xul3 yanãsqá qisp
80 foot tapakiþ jof bet25 úú ígaro
81 leg paki tsostr bet1 úú ígaro
82 knee xanna roks gùn2 n'aš ŋazu
83 hand ânyâ peþ 5 mlasãn lapka
84 wing tuli xáyr say6 hal hando
85 stomach nânó jítwó khòm1 ûm ugasa
86 intestines xofu þrój kis3 áxú' fluġa
87 neck nÿsa hán thel1 m'até makka
88 back ninu skif jen2 mânzâ éłíñé
89 breast ulu ĥesp es2 lóá nolu
90 heart asta búzóp lum3 óáó płéjí
91 liver kismó hém phìn2 'ólyax tamasko
92 drink qasqe mémíš gob1 póít rubes
93 eat xâni mánáš šed3 kámî loṅġu
94 bite tani þáláš dup1 kwãm saska
95 suck [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
96 spit [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
97 vomit [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
98 blow [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
99 breathe nâsâ hûméš čav3 íáxá qafah
100 laugh (v.) čâča xlévíš ğid3 sálq ular
101 see mâsâ mátáš jel1 spaw tos
102 hear fumwâ sízóš nÿ6 túk eğes
103 know sâmâ čúzáš gep1 ânãm čívaŋ
104 think unqâ bánáš wa6 ító lorñé
105 smell noqâ hargaš feš1 ál qadax
106 fear qoxâ jordaš žŷs6 štahqãn šłésta
107 sleep pisqa ríníš mon2 tanôš mazah
108 live esâ flirtiš fet1 hozaf
109 die sâla sáyáš ğó5 lakalap sadax
110 kill sâsâla jómáš 3 ôn znaŋga
111 fight fałki wéréš žal1 tyax hunder
112 hunt fuli darkaš 5 kwatló čídu
113 hit oči üngüš fak1 hákl kolpu
114 cut xaši héjéš dwos6 šóáx unzi
115 split šinâkwâni jénéš ek3 šóáxax kenuru...adazeya
116 stab xassuli séjéš vis2 šwóáx onda
117 scratch usqe kirþiš vaš3 tíhq ekeh
118 dig toši twúmúš ín6 p'ap uyah
119 swim lafwa gwaskaš šòm3 wakôm kazel
120 fly (v.) âsta čöltüš áy5 afal
121 walk čika mûzâš òn1 šallat oğa
122 come yâšifa síníš tyas6 tas iğil...šíl
123 lie pama šéríš čod1 óó remba
124 sit takwa hulsaš kon2 n'aškal élta
125 stand paqa jóláš čhìng2 sakkãn łéjén
126 turn [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
127 fall [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
128 give [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
129 hold [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
130 squeeze [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
131 rub [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
132 wash [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
133 wipe [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
134 pull [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
135 push [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
136 throw [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
137 tie [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
138 sew [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
139 count [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
140 say nolu raš gàm1 ís tene
141 sing qota fwónáš gya6 waláá rasla
142 play [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
143 float [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
144 flow [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
145 freeze [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
146 swell minya tívíš jem1 wa' imif
147 sun fâsa šéy ží6 síly teva
148 moon lüli glûm lom3 xwayl ñélu
149 star pâsâ þézíğâ jed1 áó xende
150 water ilya hížâ fay6 šân šéłí
151 rain elya yesler čhas2 úmâ íłé
152 river âlâþ sekl mag1 shãm čínu
153 lake kuša šik xis3 xaqahaxt sloŋ
154 sea qampâ kwámáky den2 šánôq halah
155 salt fakÿ jabw paš3 lapa's ir
156 stone ampak négwínr ğeš1 laxats undar
157 sand manča jasw dip1 hasal ším
158 dust xânây xörčôw jub3 sasanãmp manz
159 earth meni korban xum1 klaqxaw toqe
160 cloud lunqe kôy čhàng3 kyó també
161 fog saqwa ĥaþl phof3 qésw olis
162 sky fula mráysává váy5 tsahp łéñé
163 wind lanqas rážává thik1 hyahwaš ṅiviṅ
164 snow âfa köst phun1 kaššóh čéyaq
165 ice iši graþ nut1 kíš nosa
166 smoke mulâw pluþ čaf3 kakaxãn falor
167 fire nâša "öngr ved1 tyasí xassa
168 ashes mipé béykr xen2 xîn abeh
169 burn nâsa hôžûš jìm1 šáyyĩn uzaŋ
170 road âxa hów fop1 óš ṅave
171 mountain qâsâ pek dûs6 šaxamãt sida
172 red fâstakiši ’ís án6 šaxašmãq łédan
173 green fâstanüsa rén 6 áwíl omar
174 yellow fâstapâpi brünč žis2 ílmĩw ṅireh
175 white fâstaluli hítwín pul3 shaw'al elti
176 black fâstaxasa jél ğol3 útuqmũp čívas
177 night omuþ þanluğa van2 mãġalm ost
178 day peli šéylér 5 yalãm znoye
179 year ipyak šässiðä 6 óštá šíyasida
180 warm [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
181 cold [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
182 full [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
183 new [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
184 old [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
185 good [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
186 bad [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
187 rotten [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
188 dirty [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
189 straight [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
190 round [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
191 sharp [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
192 dull [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
193 smooth [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
194 wet [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
195 dry [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
196 correct [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
197 near [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
198 far [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
199 right [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
200 left [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
201 at ân g- dat3 í- mi
202 in ma s- pa4 ûm ku
203 with ax n- this3 âm kanaya
204 and -tun ténd, nam so4 n ñéh
205 if [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
206 because [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
207 name ala jíxwá čhŷs6 álkú qlindu

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